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사이버 군사전략 개관

  • 저자 송운수
  • 출간일 2022년7월14일
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  • 판형 크라운판
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도서소개

사이버억지 군사전략이 필요하다.


사이버 네트워크 시대에 사이버는 더 이상 단순한 해킹의 수단이 아니다. 사이버 범죄를 넘어서 사이버 무기체계로서의 군사적 수단이 되고 있다. 사이버 수단에 의한 공격이 국가안보를 위협하는 안보 환경에서 이제는 사이버 군사전략이 요구된다. 냉전시대 성공적인 전략이었던 억지전략은 사이버환경에서도 군사적 억지전략으로 유효하다고 평가되고 있다. 사이버 군사전략에 관한 연구는 국내에서도 활발하게 전개되고 있다. 그러나 아직 이론적인 연구 이외에 한반도 상황에 부합되는 사이버 군사전략의 대안이 제시된 바도 없고, 우리 국방부에서도 사이버 군사전략을 명시적으로 공개하지 않고 있는 상황이다.
본 연구는 ‘보복 및 거부에 의한 억지’ 등 억지전략 이론과 미국의 ‘발사의 왼편작전(Left of Launch)’의 개념 등을 기초로, 한반도 현실을 고려하여 ‘네트워크마비전략’의 개념을 보복에 의한 억지의 군사전략으로 제시하였다.
이 개념은 적의 사이버공격에만 대응하는 순수한 사이버전 수단에 의한 공격 개념을 넘어서 사이버전과 전자전의 시너지 효과를 통해서 폐쇄망으로 운용되는 북한의 핵ㆍ미사일망과 네트워크화된 재래식무기까지도 무력화하고자 하는 공세적인 사이버 군사전략이다. 즉, 폐쇄망일지라도 무선공간의 전자기파의 수단으로 네트워크에 침투하고, 전자기파에 탑재된 악성코드 등 사이버전 수단으로 네트워크 기능을 마비 또는 무력화시킬 수 있는 사이버전자전 공격 전략이다. 이를 뒷받침하기 위한 논거로 사이버전자전의 개념과 방법을 제시하였으며, 사이버전자전을 주요 수단으로 하는 네트워크마비전략의 개념과 논리적 구조를 정립하고, 그 작전수행방법까지 제시하는 등 세 가지에 연구중점을 두었다.
네트워크마비전략은 적의 네트워크를 무력화하는 비살상 전략이다. 적국의 국가기능 및 전투기능을 마비시켜 전쟁의 확대를 예방하면서 적의 도발을 억지하고자 하는 목적을 지향한다. 네트워크마비전략은 적의 작전지휘 C4I체계, 네트워크화된 무기체계, 군 및 사회기반체계 등 3개 구조를 그 무력화 대상으로 하고, 사이버전, 전자전 및 사이버전자전 등 비살상적 무기체계들을 그 공격수단으로 한다.
이 네트워크마비전략은 다음 세 가지 군사전략적 가치를 가지고 있다. 첫째, 물리적인 피해를 주는 것이 아니기 때문에 보복을 최소화할 수 있으므로 전시 뿐만 아니라 평시에도 선제자위권 수단으로 사용할 수 있다. 둘째, 핵억지력의 수단인 핵무기는 현실적으로 사용이 불가한 억지수단이지만, 사이버전자전은 실제로 사용 가능한 억지수단이므로 억지가 실패하는 경우라도 분쟁의 효과적인 공격수단이 될 수 있다. 셋째, 네트워크마비전략의 주요 수단인 사이버전자전은 사이버공간 뿐만 아니라 무선공간에서도 사용이 가능하므로 전시 통합작전 수단으로도 사용 가능하다.
이러한 군사전략적 가치로 인해 네트워크마비전략의 개념은 핵ㆍ미사일 도발에 대한 평시 전쟁억지력과 함께 전시 다영역 통합작전 개념을 수반하여 전ㆍ평시를 망라하는 작전수행 개념으로 발전할 수 있다. 따라서 사이버공격에 대한 위협 뿐만 아니라 북한으로부터 핵ㆍ미사일 위협을 직접적으로 받고 있는 한반도 안보환경을 고려하여 네트워크마비전략의 개념을 사이버 군사전략으로서 보다 체계적으로 발전시킬 필요가 있다.
과학기술과 무기체계 및 네트워크의 발전으로 지상, 해상, 공중 뿐만 아니라 사이버 전장 및 우주 전장으로까지 전장이 확대되는 사이버 네트워크 시대에 미래 전장 상황을 연구하고 미래 전장 상황에 맞는 군사전략을 고민하는 군사전략가들에게 이 책이 다소나마 도움이 되길 바란다.


2022년 5월
송 운 수

저자 및 역자 소개

도서차례

Chapter Ⅰ. 서 론 ··············································································1
제1절 연구목적 ·······································································································3
제2절 기존의 연구들 ······························································································6
제3절 연구방법 및 범위 ······················································································10
Chapter Ⅱ. 사이버안보와 사이버억지 ················································13
제1절 기술의 발전과 사이버안보 ········································································15
1. 과학기술의 발전과 전쟁양상의 변화 ··························································15
2. 사이버안보의 개념과 국제규범 ···································································19
3. 사이버 융합기술과 사이버안보 개념의 진화 ··············································32
제2절 억지의 이론적 고찰 ···················································································40
1. 억지의 개념 ·································································································40
2. 억지의 다양한 형태 ···················································································44
3. 억지의 수행방법과 성공요인 ·······································································46
제3절 사이버억지의 개념과 논쟁 ········································································49
1. 사이버억지의 이론적 개념 ··········································································49
2. 사이버억지의 제한성 및 기존 핵억지와 차이점 ········································52
3. 사이버억지의 실효성에 대한 논쟁 ······························································55
4. 사이버억지의 실효성에 대한 평가 ······························································61
5. 기존의 사이버억지 군사전략 ·······································································64
제4절 네트워크마비전 개념의 필요성과 억지 효과 ············································69
1. 사이버 작전환경의 변화 ··············································································69
2. 새로운 사이버 작전환경과 네트워크마비 개념의 필요성 ··························73
3. 네트워크마비전략 개념의 억지 효과 ··························································78
4. 네트워크마비전략 수단으로서의 사이버전자전 ···········································80
Chapter Ⅲ. 사이버전자전의 군사적 유용성 ·······································89
제1절 사이버전자전의 개요 ·················································································91
1. 기본 개념 ·····································································································91
2. 가능성을 보여준 사례들 ··············································································99
3. 무기체계 ····································································································104
4. 사이버전자전의 군사적 유용성 ·································································108
제2절 사이버전자전의 수행방법과 핵심기술 ·····················································110
1. 사이버전자전 수행방법 ·············································································110
2. 사이버전자전 핵심기술 ·············································································112
제3절 주변국 및 북한의 사이버ㆍ전자전 위협 ················································119
1. 주변국 최근 동향 및 능력 ·······································································119
2. 북한의 능력 및 위협 ················································································125
3. 북한 사이버위협에 대한 한국의 대응체계 ···············································135
Chapter Ⅳ. 네트워크마비전략의 개념과 군사전략적 가치 ··············147
제1절 기존 컴퓨터네트워크작전(CNO)의 제한사항 ··········································150
1. 네트워크중심전(NCW)하 컴퓨터네트워크작전(CNO) ······························150
2. 컴퓨터네트워크작전(CNO) 수행방법 ························································157
3. 컴퓨터네트워크작전(CNO)의 강점과 제한사항 ········································160
제2절 네트워크마비전략 개념의 필요성 ····························································162
1. 컴퓨터네트워크작전(CNO)의 제한사항과 보완요소 ·································162
2. 한반도 사이버 작전환경 ···········································································165
3. 마비전략 전쟁양상의 변화 ········································································168
제3절 네트워크마비전의 개념과 대상표적 ························································175
1. 네트워크마비전의 개념과 요구능력 ··························································175
2. 네트워크마비전 개념의 구조 ····································································177
3. 네트워크마비전의 목표와 대상표적 ··························································179
4. 네트워크마비전략의 군사전략적 가치 ······················································182
Chapter Ⅴ. 네트워크마비전의 작전수행개념과 요구능력 ················187
제1절 네트워크마비전 구현을 위한 사이버전자전 수행개념 ····························189
1. 사이버전자전 작전환경 ·············································································189
2. 한반도에서의 네트워크마비전을 위한 전략수행개념 ·······························190
3. 작전범주별 작전수행개념 ··········································································195
제2절 제대별 작전수행방안 ···············································································200
1. 작전수행방안 ·····························································································200
2. 무기체계 유형 ···························································································203
3. 제대별 수행부대 및 편성 ·········································································210
제3절 사이버전자전 전투발전요소(DOTMLPF) ················································214
1. 교리(Doctrine) ··························································································214
2. 조직(Organization) ················································································215
3. 교육훈련(Training) ····················································································216
4. 무기체계(Material) ···················································································217
5. 간부개발(Leadership) ··············································································218
6. 인적자원(Personnel) ················································································219
7. 시설(Facility) ····························································································219
8. 전투발전요소별 발전소요 종합 ·································································220
Chapter Ⅵ. 결 론 ·········································································223
참 고 문 헌 ·························································································235
약 어 집 ·······························································································248